Relevant Literature

This page features publications that are related to the topic of pro-poor private sector healthcare in emerging markets. Publications on this page are not the original works of PSP4H and their contents are the property of, and represent the views of, their respective authors. When referencing material found on this page, please cite the authors as the original source.


Advancing Bottom of the Pyramid (BoP) Access to Healthcare: A Case Study on Mobile Money Platforms Author – Business Call to Action (BCtA), 2016

Mobile money has the potential to both catalyse the growth of inclusive businesses in the health sector and increase access to healthcare among BoP populations.

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Healthcare Finance

Health Insurance Participation: Experimental Evidence from Kenya Authors – Stefan Dercon, Jan Willien Gunning, Andrew Zeitlin, Claudia Cerrone, Simone Lombardini

Households living in developing countries face serious shock to incomes, mainly due to adverse weather, household illness, Price fluctuation,unemployment, business failure. If uninsured, income shocks can translate into reduced household consumption and induce costly risk – mitigation strategies ( See Morduch1995; Dercon 2004) thus leading to welfare losses.

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Kenya County Report for African Health Markets for Equity (AHME) for Demand Side Health Financing – Authors – Dr Nirmala Ravishankar, Dr Amir Thakker, Joel Lehmann – June 2013

Africa Health Markets for Equity ( AHME) a five year project that is being implemented by a consortium of partnerd led Marie Stopes International, it is focused on implementing health markets – enhancing strategies to increase coverage of priority health technologies and interventions amongst the poor in the three focus countries of Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya.

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Kenya Financial Diaries – Shilingi kwa Shilingi – The Financial Lives Of The Poor report by Julie Zollman, Funded by Financial Sector Deepening (FSD) Kenya and the Gateway Financial Innovation for Savings (GAFIS) project

Kenya Financial Diaries was a project designed to deepen the understanding of the financial lives of low – income Kenyans by capturing all of their transaction over the course of the year.

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Low Cost Service Delivery

Can Working with the Private For-Profit Sector Improve Utilization of Quality Health Services by the Poor? – Authors – Edith Patouillard, Catherine A Goodman, Kara G Hanson and Ann J Millis (From Health Economics and Financing programme, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK) – International Journal of Equity in Health 2007, 6:17

There has been a growing interest in the role of the private for-profit sector in health service provision in low- and middle-income countries. The private sector represents an important source of care for all socioeconomic groups, including the poorest and substantial concerns have been raised about the quality of care it provides. Interventions have been developed to address these technical failures and simultaneously take advantage of the potential for involving private providers to achieve public health goals. Limited information is available on the extent to which these interventions have successfully expanded access to quality health services for poor and disadvantaged populations. This paper addresses this knowledge gap by presenting the results of a systematic literature review on the effectiveness of working with private for-profit providers to reach the poor.

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Delivering High Quality, Low Cost Care at Scale Author – KPMG in Southern Africa – KMPG Contributors – Lord Nigel Crisp, Nigel Edwards, James A Cercone, Sven Byl, Dr Mark Britnell

As countries grow wealthier, models of healthcare provision and financial need to adapt to increasing expectations and new demand for healthcare. In many countries, there is growing interest in developing affordable universal health coverage. While this will bring important benefits it also creates challenges.

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The Primary Care Innovator’s Handbook Author – The Centre for Health Market Innovations

This Handbook is designed to support implementers of primary care organizations in improving their services, with a goal of enabling private organizations to provide quality, affordable, and accessible healthcare, especially for the poorest and most vulnerable.

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Maternal, Newborn and Child Health, and Reproductive Health

Diagnostic Assessment of Kenya’s Family Planning Market  Author – Cardno Emerging Markets on behalf of the ESHE programme

The purpose of this diagnostic study of Kenya’s family planning (FP) market is to inform the Enhancing Sustained Health Equity (ESHE) programme’s understanding of FP market dynamics, as well as determine the options available for greater involvement of the commercial sector in serving unmet FP needs. The analysis follows the Making Markets Work for the Poor (M4P) market systems development approach.

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Non-Communicable Diseases

Private Health Sector

Translatable Lessons from the Kenyan Healthcare Landscape Authors – Katusha Devilliers, Athenkosi Sopitshi, Dr Lindi Van Niekirk and Rachel Chater, Bertha Centre, University of Cape Town Graduate School of Business

Translational models of primary care: Understanding the replicability and scalability of high impact private sector business models for low-cost primary care, developed and implemented in Kenya, within the South African healthcare landscape.

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Extending Health Services to the Poor through the Private Sector – Author – Jane Thomason, Daniel Brown, Susan Mitchell (Abt Associates)

Development agencies are increasingly looking to business as a partner in achieving development outcomes. AusAID’s business engagement agenda “seeks to achieve greater effectiveness in the aid program by cooperating with the business community to jointly deliver creative solutions that help people overcome poverty” (AusAID, 2012a).

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Making Health Markets Work for the Poor: Improving Performance – Authors – Gerald Bloom, Claire Champion, Henry Lucas, David Peters, Hillary Standing – Institute of Development Studies Future Health Systems Consortium

During the past two decades, there has been a dramatic spread of market relationships in the health sector of many low- and middle-income countries (Mackintosh and Koivusalo 2005). Typically, out-of-pocket payments account for a substantial proportion of total health expenditure, and a large share of health care transactions include some form of cash payment (National Health Accounts 2007). Many countries have pluralistic health systems in which providers of health-related goods and services vary widely, in terms of their practice settings, their type of knowledge and associated training, and their relationship with the legal system (Bloom and Standing 2001).

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Strengthening Health Outcomes through the Private Sector Project – Abt Associates, SHOPS Project 2015 Kenya Program Profile

This publication presents the SHOPS program in Kenya, which aimed to increase health care coverage through private financing mechanisms, and increase the availability and improve the sustainability of quality private health products and services.

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Supply Chain

Kenya’s Changing Healthcare Industry and the Evolving Role of the Pharmaceutical Technologist – PharmEssence Volume 15, Issue 1, July 2015, Kenya Pharmaceutical Association

The KPA Journal was founded in 2004 and rebranded in 2011, ‘The Pharma Essence’, and since then it has been produced annually. It aims at providing comprehensive news coverage of any aspect of Pharmacy practice and other health related matters that in one way or another affect public health in Kenya and the world at large.

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Bringing Medicines to Low-Income Markets – A Guide to Creating Inclusive Business Models for Pharmaceutical Companies Published by GIZ and German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)

An estimated 4 billion people live on incomes less than $3,000 per year in local purchasing power parity (PPP)1 terms. Their spending on health constitutes an estimated market of $158.4 billion PPP per year.2 More than one-third of this health spending goes to pharmaceutical products.3 Nevertheless, this market has barely been tapped by pharmaceutical companies, which means that billions of patients are not adequately served.

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Insecticide Treated Nets: The Role of the Commercial Sector by Malaria Consortium

This Learning paper takes a detailed look at the approaches of direct support to the commercial insecticide treated net (ITN) markets that were implemented by malaria consortium and its partners as part of mixed models of malaria prevention in three Sub-Saharan African Countries.

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Private Sector Role in Supply Chains – Authors – Dalger Global Development Advisors – MIT Zaragoza International Logistics Programme.

Strong supply chains are essential to effective health care delivery in all sectors—public, faith-based, employer-provided, and private. In the countries of the Organisation for Co-operation and Development (OECD), supply chains rely heavily on the private sector for supply, distribution, and provision of key auxiliary services even when the health system itself is largely or exclusively public sector. These supply chains work quite well in ensuring consistent availability of high-quality product. In contrast, health supply chains in many low- and middle-income countries perform poorly and have less private sector involvement. This observation leads us to ask: How might a greater role for the private sector, greater leveraging of private sector supply chain best practices, or a combination of the two improve health supply chains in low- and middle-income countries?

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